Gweydr Noun Cases

Gweydr has a good number of noun cases which are realized by prefixes. A lot of "phonology" then happens with these prefixes, though if you try to figure it out phonologically, you'll be doing more harm than good. The thing that makes Gweydr's noun case system special is that I designed it using the principles of Word and Paradigm Morphology. Thus, this page will have a lot of tables.

Gweydr has two numbers (singular and plural), and fifteen cases (four core and eleven oblique), giving each noun thirty different forms. The cases are:

  1. Nominative: Used for most subjects.
  2. Terminative: Used for some direct objects and goals.
  3. Partitive: Used for some direct objects.
  4. Genitive: Used for possession.
  5. Instrumental: Used for instruments.
  6. Comitative: Used to express companionship.
  7. Essive: Used in a variety of ways.
  8. Adessive: Used to express stationariness.
  9. Allative: Used to express motion towards or onto.
  10. Abessive: Used primarily to express origins.
  11. Ablative: Used to express motion away from or off of.
  12. Inessive: Used to say that something is in something else.
  13. Illative: Used to say that something goes in something else.
  14. Exessive: Used to say that something is out of something else.
  15. Elative: Used to express that something goes out of something else.

Below, you'll find a large number of tables. The first will be the schema for all noun classes. That is, if you want to say that "the prefix for x case is y", you can use this table as a guide. They don't match up perfectly with every case prefix, but it'll put you in the right ballpark.

After the schematic table will be a number of noun classes. Each noun in Gweydr is a part of a particular noun class. To see how a noun in a given class is conjugated, simply click on the appropriate class, and you'll be whisked away to the corresponding table. The table will list the prefixes for that noun class, and will give a few examples of declined nouns from that noun class.

Below the case tables will be a detailed description of how each case is used. You can click on the name of a given case pretty much anywhere on this site (Gweydr's, that is) to go directly to a description of that case—including the names of the cases in the tables themselves.


Schematic Noun Case Table

Singular Plural
Cases Form Cases Form
Nominative Nominative -(i)ks
Terminative k(i)- Terminative k(i)- -(i)ks
Partitive r(A)- Partitive r(A)- -(i)ks
Genitive f(U)- Genitive f(U)- -(i)ks
Instrumental t(A)- Instrumental t(A)- -(i)ks
Comitative n(e)- Comitative n(e)- -(i)ks
Essive Al- Essive Al- -(i)ks
Adessive g(i)- Adessive g(i)- -(i)ks
Allative w(O)- Allative w(O)- -(i)ks
Abessive d(i)- Abessive d(i)- -(i)ks
Ablative þ(i)- Ablative þ(i)- -(i)ks
Inessive s(A)- Inessive s(A)- -(i)ks
Illative š(A)- Illative š(A)- -(i)ks
Exessive m(A)- Exessive m(A)- -(i)ks
Elative 'Um- Elative 'Um- -(i)ks

Gweydr Noun Classes

Below is a list of the noun classes of Gweydr. This list is intended to allow you to go directly to the noun class paradigm you want to see without having to scroll through them all. Each class has a default class and four subclasses.


Class I: Default Class

Is there anything more exciting than the word "default"? John Yap says, "No".

Class I is the class used for nouns which begin with a non-glottal consonant, have one or more syllables, and end in a consonant (if monosyllabic). Most nouns fall into this class.

Class I Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form bént "nose" kórúná "child" Cases Form bént "nose" kórúná "child"
Nominative bént kórúná Nominative -(i)ks béntíks kórúnáks
Terminative k(i)- kíbént kíkórúná Terminative k(i)- -(i)ks kíbéntíks kíkórúnáks
Partitive rA- râbént rákórúná Partitive rA- -(i)ks râbéntíks rákórúnáks
Genitive f(U)- fûbént fúkórúná Genitive f(U)- -(i)ks fûbéntíks fúkórúnáks
Instrumental t(A)- tâbént tákórúná Instrumental t(A)- -(i)ks tâbéntíks tákórúnáks
Comitative n(e)- nébént nékórúná Comitative n(e)- -(i)ks nébéntíks nékórúnáks
Essive Al- âlbént álkórúná Essive Al- -(i)ks âlbéntíks álkórúnáks
Adessive g(i)- gíbént gíkórúná Adessive g(i)- -(i)ks gíbéntíks gíkórúnáks
Allative wO- wébént wókórúná Allative wO- -(i)ks wébéntíks wókórúnáks
Abessive d(i)- díbént díkórúná Abessive d(i)- -(i)ks díbéntíks díkórúnáks
Ablative þ(i)- þíbént þíkórúná Ablative þ(i)- -(i)ks þíbéntíks þíkórúnáks
Inessive s(A)- zbént skórúná Inessive s(A)- -(i)ks zbéntíks skórúnáks
Illative šA- šâbént šákórúná Illative šA- -(i)ks šâbéntíks šákórúnáks
Exessive m(A)- mâbént mákórúná Exessive m(A)- -(i)ks mâbéntíks mákórúnáks
Elative 'Um- 'ûmbént 'úmkórúná Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'ûmbéntíks 'úmkórúnáks

Back to Gweydr Noun Class Table


Class IA: Plural Fronted Stem Class

Class IA is, again, for words that begin and end with a consonant, but these words are only monosyllabic (unless the second syllable is comprised entirely of consonants), and must contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IA, the fronted stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and fronted stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers.

Class IA Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form roþl "hawk" fáy "three" Cases Form roþl "hawk" fáy "three"
Nominative roþl fáy Nominative röþl fây
Terminative k(i)- kroþl kíváy Terminative k(i)- kröþl kívây
Partitive r(A)- raroþl ráváy Partitive r(A)- räröþl râvây
Genitive f(U)- froþl fúváy Genitive f(U)- fröþl fûvây
Instrumental t(A)- troþl táváy Instrumental t(A)- tröþl tâvây
Comitative n(e)- nroþl néváy Comitative n(e)- nröþl névây
Essive Al- alroþl álfáy Essive Al- älröþl âlfây
Adessive g(i)- groþl gíváy Adessive g(i)- gröþl gívây
Allative wO- woroþl wóváy Allative wO- wöröþl wôvây
Abessive d(i)- droþl díváy Abessive d(i)- dröþl dívây
Ablative þ(i)- þroþl þíváy Ablative þ(i)- þröþl þívây
Inessive s(A)- sroþl sfáy Inessive s(A)- sröþl sfây
Illative šA- šaroþl šáváy Illative šA- šäröþl šâvây
Exessive m(A)- mroþl máváy Exessive m(A)- mröþl mâvây
Elative 'Um- 'umroþl 'úmfáy Elative 'Um- 'ümröþl 'ûmfây

Back to Gweydr Noun Class Table


Class IB: Oblique Fronted Stem Class

Class IB is also for words that begin and end with a consonant, but these words are only monosyllabic (unless the second syllable is comprised entirely of consonants), and must contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IB, the fronted stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the fronted stem is used for the core cases, and the fronted stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases.

Class IB Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form gól "maple" wuš "leaf" Cases Form gól "maple" wuš "leaf"
Nominative gól wuš Nominative gôl wüš
Terminative k(i)- kígól kwuš Terminative k(i)- kígôl kwüš
Partitive rA- rágól rawuš Partitive rA- râgôl räwüš
Genitive f(U)- fúgól fwuš Genitive f(U)- fûgôl fwüš
Instrumental t(A)- tâgôl twüš Instrumental t(A)- -(i)ks tâgôlks twüžiks
Comitative n(e)- négôl nwüš Comitative n(e)- -(i)ks négôlks nwüžiks
Essive Al- âlgôl älwüš Essive Al- -(i)ks âlgôlks älwüžiks
Adessive g(i)- gígôl gwüš Adessive g(i)- -(i)ks gígôlks gwüžiks
Allative wO- wôgôl wöwüš Allative wO- -(i)ks wôgôlks wöwüžiks
Abessive d(i)- dígôl dwüš Abessive d(i)- -(i)ks dígôlks dwüžiks
Ablative þ(i)- þígôl þwüš Ablative þ(i)- -(i)ks þígôlks þwüžiks
Inessive s(A)- zgôl swüš Inessive s(A)- -(i)ks zgôlks swüžiks
Illative šA- šâgôl šäwüš Illative šA- -(i)ks šâgôlks šäwüžiks
Exessive m(A)- mâgôl mwüš Exessive m(A)- -(i)ks mâgôlks mwüžiks
Elative 'Um- 'ûmgôl 'ümwüš Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'ûmgôlks 'ümwüžiks

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Class IC: Plural Raised Stem Class

Class IC is for monosyllabic words that begin and end with a consonant, and whose vowel is e. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IC, the raised stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and the raised stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers.

Class IC Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form fest "eye" šél "bird" Cases Form fest "eye" šél "bird"
Nominative fest šél Nominative fist šíl
Terminative k(i)- kivest kížél Terminative k(i)- kivist kížíl
Partitive r(A)- rävest râžél Partitive r(A)- rävist râžíl
Genitive f(U)- füvest fûžél Genitive f(U)- fivist fížíl
Instrumental t(A)- tävest tâžél Instrumental t(A)- tävist tâžíl
Comitative n(e)- nevest néžél Comitative n(e)- nevist néžíl
Essive Al- älfest âlšél Essive Al- älfist âlšíl
Adessive g(i)- givest gížél Adessive g(i)- givist gížíl
Allative wO- wevest wéžél Allative wO- wövist wôžíl
Abessive d(i)- divest dížél Abessive d(i)- divist dížíl
Ablative þ(i)- þivest þížél Ablative þ(i)- þivist þížíl
Inessive s(A)- sfest sâžél Inessive s(A)- sfist sâžíl
Illative šA- šävest šâžél Illative šA- šävist šâžíl
Exessive m(A)- mävest mâžél Exessive m(A)- mävist mâžíl
Elative 'Um- 'ümfest 'ûmšél Elative 'Um- 'imfist 'ímšíl

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Class ID: Oblique Raised Stem Class

Class ID is for monosyllabic words that begin and end with a consonant, and whose vowel is e. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class ID, the raised stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the raised stem is used for the core cases, and the raised stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases.

Class ID Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form peþ "hand" derk "seed" Cases Form peþ "hand" derk "seed"
Nominative peþ derk Nominative piþ dirk
Terminative k(i)- kipeþ kiderk Terminative k(i)- kipiþ kidirk
Partitive rA- räpeþ räderk Partitive rA- räpiþ rädirk
Genitive f(U)- füpeþ füderk Genitive f(U)- fipiþ fidirk
Instrumental t(A)- täpiþ tädirk Instrumental t(A)- -(i)ks täpiðiks tädirkis
Comitative n(e)- nepiþ nedirk Comitative n(e)- -(i)ks nepiðiks nedirkis
Essive Al- älpiþ äldirk Essive Al- -(i)ks älpiðiks äldirkis
Adessive g(i)- gipiþ gidirk Adessive g(i)- -(i)ks gipiðiks gidirkis
Allative wO- wöpiþ wödirk Allative wO- -(i)ks wöpiðiks wödirkis
Abessive d(i)- dipiþ didirk Abessive d(i)- -(i)ks dipiðiks didirkis
Ablative þ(i)- þipiþ þidirk Ablative þ(i)- -(i)ks þipiðiks þidirkis
Inessive s(A)- spiþ zdirk Inessive s(A)- -(i)ks spiðiks zdirkis
Illative šA- šäpiþ šädirk Illative šA- -(i)ks šäpiðiks šädirkis
Exessive m(A)- mäpiþ mädirk Exessive m(A)- -(i)ks mäpiðiks mädirkis
Elative 'Um- 'impiþ 'imdirk Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'impiðiks 'imdirkis

Back to Gweydr Noun Class Table


Class II: Short Glottal Default Class

Class II is the class used for nouns which begin with a short glottal consonant. These are nouns that begin with either a glottal stop or glottal fricative that detaches when a case prefix is attached. Thus, it's as if the words began with a vowel (but they don't). Romanizationally, these are words that begin with a vowel, or the letter h.

Class II Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form "mouth" hâzíf "knife" Cases Form "mouth" hâzíf "knife"
Nominative — / h- hâzíf Nominative -(i)ks / h- -(i)ks ežiks hâzívíks
Terminative k- keš kâzíf Terminative k- -(i)ks kežiks kâzívíks
Partitive r- reš râzíf Partitive r- -(i)ks režiks râzívíks
Genitive f- feš fâzíf Genitive f- -(i)ks fežiks fâzívíks
Instrumental t- teš tâzíf Instrumental t- -(i)ks težiks tâzívíks
Comitative n- neš nâzíf Comitative n- -(i)ks nežiks nâzívíks
Essive Al- äleš âlâzíf Essive Al- -(i)ks äležiks âlâzívíks
Adessive g- geš gâzíf Adessive g- -(i)ks gežiks gâzívíks
Allative w- weš wâzíf Allative w- -(i)ks wežiks wâzívíks
Abessive d- deš dâzíf Abessive d- -(i)ks dežiks dâzívíks
Ablative þ- þeš þâzíf Ablative þ- -(i)ks þežiks þâzívíks
Inessive s- seš sâzíf Inessive s- -(i)ks sežiks sâzívíks
Illative š- šeš šâzíf Illative š- -(i)ks šežiks šâzívíks
Exessive m- meš mâzíf Exessive m- -(i)ks mežiks mâzívíks
Elative 'Um- 'ümeš 'ûmâzíf Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'ümežiks 'ûmâzívíks

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Class IIA: Short Glottal Plural Fronted Stem Class

Class IIA is for monosyllabic words that begin with a short glottal and end with a consonant and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IIA, the fronted stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and fronted stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers. Additionally, the short glottal is removed when a case prefix is attached, so that it's as if the word began with a vowel.

Class IIA Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ot "fruit" húm "owl" Cases Form ot "fruit" húm "owl"
Nominative — / h- ot húm Nominative — / h- öt hûm
Terminative k- kot kúm Terminative k- köt kûm
Partitive r- rot rúm Partitive r- röt rûm
Genitive f- fot fúm Genitive f- föt fûm
Instrumental t- tot túm Instrumental t- töt tûm
Comitative n- not núm Comitative n- nöt nûm
Essive Al- alot álúm Essive Al- älöt âlûm
Adessive g- got gúm Adessive g- göt gûm
Allative w- wot wúm Allative w- wöt wûm
Abessive d- dot dúm Abessive d- döt dûm
Ablative þ- þot þúm Ablative þ- þöt þûm
Inessive s- sot súm Inessive s- söt sûm
Illative š- šot šúm Illative š- šöt šûm
Exessive m- mot múm Exessive m- möt mûm
Elative 'Um- 'umot 'úmúm Elative 'Um- 'ümöt 'ûmûm

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Class IIB: Short Glottal Oblique Fronted Stem Class

Class IIB is for monosyllabic words that begin with a short glottal and end with a consonant and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IIB, the fronted stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the fronted stem is used for the core cases, and the fronted stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases.

Class IIB Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form hán "neck" áp "string" Cases Form hán "neck" áp "string"
Nominative — / h- hán áp Nominative — / h- hân âp
Terminative k- kán káp Terminative k- kân kâp
Partitive r- rán ráp Partitive r- rân râp
Genitive f- fán fáp Genitive f- fân fâp
Instrumental t- tân tâp Instrumental t- -(i)ks tânks tâbíks
Comitative n- nân nâp Comitative n- -(i)ks nânks nâbíks
Essive Al- âlân âlâp Essive Al- -(i)ks âlânks âlâbíks
Adessive g- gân gâp Adessive g- -(i)ks gânks gâbíks
Allative w- wân wâp Allative w- -(i)ks wânks wâbíks
Abessive d- dân dâp Abessive d- -(i)ks dânks dâbíks
Ablative þ- þân þâp Ablative þ- -(i)ks þânks þâbíks
Inessive s- sân sâp Inessive s- -(i)ks sânks sâbíks
Illative š- šân šâp Illative š- -(i)ks šânks šâbíks
Exessive m- mân mâp Exessive m- -(i)ks mânks mâbíks
Elative 'Um- 'ûmân 'ûmâp Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'ûmânks 'ûmâbíks

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Class IIC: Short Glottal Plural Raised Stem Class

Class IIC is for monosyllabic words that begin with a short glottal and end with a consonant, and whose vowel is e. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IIC, the raised stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and the raised stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers. [Note: Though you can't see it here, there's a disappearing d in the word for "bucket". See rule 2 of the phonology section for an explanation.]

Class IIC Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ent "tree" hét "bucket" Cases Form ent "tree" hét "bucket"
Nominative — / h- ent hét Nominative — / h- int hít
Terminative k- kent két Terminative k- kint kít
Partitive r- rent rét Partitive r- rint rít
Genitive f- fent fét Genitive f- fint fít
Instrumental t- tent tét Instrumental t- tint tít
Comitative n- nent nét Comitative n- nint nít
Essive Al- älent âlét Essive Al- älint âlít
Adessive g- gent gét Adessive g- gint gít
Allative w- went wét Allative w- wint wít
Abessive d- dent dét Abessive d- dint dít
Ablative þ- þent þét Ablative þ- þint þít
Inessive s- sent sét Inessive s- sint sít
Illative š- šent šét Illative š- šint šít
Exessive m- ment mét Exessive m- mint mít
Elative 'Um- 'üment 'ûmét Elative 'Um- 'imint 'ímít

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Class IID: Short Glottal Oblique Raised Stem Class

Class IID is for monosyllabic words that begin with a short glottal and end with a consonant, and whose vowel is e. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IID, the raised stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the raised stem is used for the core cases, and the raised stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases. [Note: The d at the end of the word for "skin" is not pronounced when it comes word-finally. For more info see rule 12 of the phonology section for an explanation.]

Class IID Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form end "skin" hél "petal" Cases Form end "skin" hél "petal"
Nominative — / h- end hél Nominative — / h- ind híl
Terminative k- kend kél Terminative k- kind kíl
Partitive r- rend rél Partitive r- rind ríl
Genitive f- fend fél Genitive f- find fíl
Instrumental t- tind tíl Instrumental t- -(i)ks tindiks tílks
Comitative n- nind níl Comitative n- -(i)ks nindiks nílks
Essive Al- älind âlíl Essive Al- -(i)ks älindiks âlílks
Adessive g- gind gíl Adessive g- -(i)ks gindiks gílks
Allative w- wind wíl Allative w- -(i)ks windiks wílks
Abessive d- dind díl Abessive d- -(i)ks dindiks dílks
Ablative þ- þind þíl Ablative þ- -(i)ks þindiks þílks
Inessive s- sind síl Inessive s- -(i)ks sindiks sílks
Illative š- šind šíl Illative š- -(i)ks šindiks šílks
Exessive m- mind míl Exessive m- -(i)ks mindiks mílks
Elative 'Um- 'imind 'ímíl Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'imindiks 'ímílks

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Class III: Soft Glottal Fricative Default Class

Class III is the class used for nouns which begin with a soft glottal fricative consonant. Romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ĥ. Though the fricative doesn't sound different when compared any other glottal fricative, soft glottal fricatives have a kind of spirantizing effect on preceding consonants. Thus, the consonants in case prefixes are "softened", in a way. For examples, see below.

Class III Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ĥágólč "warrior" ĥum "wood" Cases Form ĥágólč "warrior" ĥum "wood"
Nominative ĥ- ĥágólč ĥum Nominative ĥ- -(i)ks ĥágólčíks ĥumiks
Terminative x- xágólč xum Terminative x- -(i)ks xágólčíks xumiks
Partitive ŕ- ŕágólč ŕum Partitive ŕ- -(i)ks ŕágólčíks ŕumiks
Genitive f- fágólč fum Genitive f- -(i)ks fágólčíks fumiks
Instrumental þ- þágólč þum Instrumental þ- -(i)ks þágólčíks þumiks
Comitative n- nágólč num Comitative n- -(i)ks nágólčíks numiks
Essive Ał- áłágólč ałum Essive Ał- -(i)ks áłágólčíks ałumiks
Adessive x- xágólč xum Adessive x- -(i)ks xágólčíks xumiks
Allative ŵ- ŵágólč ŵum Allative ŵ- -(i)ks ŵágólčíks ŵumiks
Abessive þ- þágólč þum Abessive þ- -(i)ks þágólčíks þumiks
Ablative þ- þágólč þum Ablative þ- -(i)ks þágólčíks þumiks
Inessive š- šágólč šum Inessive š- -(i)ks šágólčíks šumiks
Illative š- šágólč šum Illative š- -(i)ks šágólčíks šumiks
Exessive m- mágólč mum Exessive m- -(i)ks mágólčíks mumiks
Elative 'Um- 'úmágólč 'umum Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'úmágólčíks 'umumiks

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Class IIIA: Soft Glottal Fricative Plural Fronted Stem Class

Class IIIA is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a soft glottal fricative consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ĥ) and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IIIA, the fronted stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and fronted stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers. Additionally, the soft glottal fricative causes the case prefixes to spirantize.

Class IIIA Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ĥórs "dog" ĥarts "muddy grass" Cases Form ĥórs "dog" ĥarts "muddy grass"
Nominative ĥ- ĥórs ĥarts Nominative ĥ- ĥôrs ĥärts
Terminative x- xórs xarts Terminative x- xôrs xärts
Partitive ŕ- ŕórs ŕarts Partitive ŕ- ŕôrs ŕärts
Genitive f- fórs farts Genitive f- fôrs färts
Instrumental þ- þórs þarts Instrumental þ- þôrs þärts
Comitative n- nórs narts Comitative n- nôrs närts
Essive Ał- áłórs ałarts Essive Ał- âłôrs äłärts
Adessive x- xórs xarts Adessive x- xôrs xärts
Allative ŵ- ŵórs ŵarts Allative ŵ- ŵôrs ŵärts
Abessive þ- þórs þarts Abessive þ- þôrs þärts
Ablative þ- þórs þarts Ablative þ- þôrs þärts
Inessive š- šórs šarts Inessive š- šôrs šärts
Illative š- šórs šarts Illative š- šôrs šärts
Exessive m- mórs marts Exessive m- môrs märts
Elative 'Um- 'úmórs 'umarts Elative 'Um- 'ûmôrs 'ümärts

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Class IIIB: Soft Glottal Fricative Oblique Fronted Stem Class

Class IIIB is for monosyllabic words that begin with a soft glottal fricative consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ĥ) and end with a consonant and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IIIB, the fronted stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the fronted stem is used for the core cases, and the fronted stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases. Additionally, the soft glottal fricative causes the case prefixes to spirantize.

Class IIIB Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ĥaþl "fog" ĥoft "garlic" Cases Form ĥaþl "fog" ĥoft "garlic"
Nominative ĥ- ĥaþl ĥoft Nominative ĥ- ĥäþl ĥöft
Terminative x- xaþl xoft Terminative x- xäþl xöft
Partitive ŕ- ŕaþl ŕoft Partitive ŕ- ŕäþl ŕöft
Genitive f- faþl foft Genitive f- fäþl föft
Instrumental þ- þäþl þöft Instrumental þ- -(i)ks þäþliks þöftiks
Comitative n- näþl nöft Comitative n- -(i)ks näþliks nöftiks
Essive Ał- äłäþl äłöft Essive Ał- -(i)ks äłäþliks äłöftiks
Adessive x- xäþl xöft Adessive x- -(i)ks xäþliks xöftiks
Allative ŵ- ŵäþl ŵöft Allative ŵ- -(i)ks ŵäþliks ŵöftiks
Abessive þ- þäþl þöft Abessive þ- -(i)ks þäþliks þöftiks
Ablative þ- þäþl þöft Ablative þ- -(i)ks þäþliks þöftiks
Inessive š- šäþl šöft Inessive š- -(i)ks šäþliks šöftiks
Illative š- šäþl šöft Illative š- -(i)ks šäþliks šöftiks
Exessive m- mäþl möft Exessive m- -(i)ks mäþliks möftiks
Elative 'Um- 'ümäþl 'ümöft Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'ümäþliks 'ümöftiks

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Class IIIC: Soft Glottal Fricative Plural Raised Stem Class

Class IIIC is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a soft glottal fricative consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ĥ) and end with a consonant, and whose vowel is e. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IIIC, the raised stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and the raised stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers.

Class IIIC Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ĥenl "hide" ĥesp "chest" Cases Form ĥenl "hide" ĥesp "chest"
Nominative ĥ- ĥenl ĥesp Nominative ĥ- ĥinl ĥisp
Terminative x- xenl xesp Terminative x- xinl xisp
Partitive ŕ- ŕenl ŕesp Partitive ŕ- ŕinl ŕisp
Genitive f- fenl fesp Genitive f- finl fisp
Instrumental þ- þenl þesp Instrumental þ- þinl þisp
Comitative n- nenl nesp Comitative n- ninl nisp
Essive Ał- äłenl äłesp Essive Ał- äłinl äłisp
Adessive x- xenl xesp Adessive x- xinl xisp
Allative ŵ- ŵenl ŵesp Allative ŵ- ŵinl ŵisp
Abessive þ- þenl þesp Abessive þ- þinl þisp
Ablative þ- þenl þesp Ablative þ- þinl þisp
Inessive š- šenl šesp Inessive š- šinl šisp
Illative š- šenl šesp Illative š- šinl šisp
Exessive m- menl mesp Exessive m- minl misp
Elative 'Um- 'ümenl 'ümesp Elative 'Um- 'iminl 'imisp

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Class IIID: Soft Glottal Fricative Oblique Raised Stem Class

Class IIID is for monosyllabic words that begin with a soft glottal fricative consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ĥ) and end with a consonant, and whose vowel ise. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IIID, the raised stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the raised stem is used for the core cases, and the raised stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases. Additionally, the soft glottal fricative causes the case prefixes to spirantize. [Note: There are two rules at work in these data. The first is rather simple, and is explained in rule 1 of the phonology section. The second involves the shape of the plural suffix, and is discussed in rule 11 of the phonology section.]

Class IIID Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ĥeš "forest" ĥex "glove" Cases Form ĥeš "forest" ĥex "glove"
Nominative ĥ- ĥeš ĥex Nominative ĥ- ĥiš ĥix
Terminative x- xeš xex Terminative x- xiš xix
Partitive ŕ- ŕeš ŕex Partitive ŕ- ŕiš ŕix
Genitive f- feš fex Genitive f- fiš fix
Instrumental þ- þiš þix Instrumental þ- -(i)ks þižiks þiğis
Comitative n- niš nix Comitative n- -(i)ks nižiks niğis
Essive Ał- äłiš äłix Essive Ał- -(i)ks äłižiks äłiğis
Adessive x- xiš xix Adessive x- -(i)ks xižiks xiğis
Allative ŵ- ŵiš ŵix Allative ŵ- -(i)ks ŵižiks ŵiğis
Abessive þ- þiš þix Abessive þ- -(i)ks þižiks þiğis
Ablative þ- þiš þix Ablative þ- -(i)ks þižiks þiğis
Inessive š- šiš šix Inessive š- -(i)ks šižiks šiğis
Illative š- šiš šix Illative š- -(i)ks šižiks šiğis
Exessive m- miš mix Exessive m- -(i)ks mižiks miğis
Elative 'Um- 'imiš 'imix Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'imižiks 'imiğis

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Class IV: Soft Glottal Stop Default Class

Class IV is the class used for nouns which begin with a soft glottal stop consonant. Romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter '. The effect that this type of glottal stop has on the case prefixes is it makes that consonant more like a glottal stop. This produces a variety of effects which you can see below. The default class is used with words of one or more syllables, with the proviso that monosyllabic words must end in a consonant. For examples, see below.

Class IV Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form 'ézíny "sword" 'ílô "creek" Cases Form 'ézíny "sword" 'ílô"creek"
Nominative '- 'ézíny 'ílô Nominative '- -(i)ks 'ézínyíks 'ílôks
Terminative k- kézíny kílô Terminative k- -(i)ks kézínyíks kílôks
Partitive d- dézíny dílô Partitive d- -(i)ks dézínyíks dílôks
Genitive p- pézíny pílô Genitive p- -(i)ks pézínyíks pílôks
Instrumental t- tézíny tílô Instrumental t- -(i)ks tézínyíks tílôks
Comitative d- dézíny dílô Comitative d- -(i)ks dézínyíks dílôks
Essive Ad- âdézíny âdílô Essive Ad- -(i)ks âdézínyíks âdílôks
Adessive k- kézíny kílô Adessive k- -(i)ks kézínyíks kílôks
Allative g- gézíny gílô Allative g- -(i)ks gézínyíks gílôks
Abessive t- tézíny tílô Abessive t- -(i)ks tézínyíks tílôks
Ablative t- tézíny tílô Ablative t- -(i)ks tézínyíks tílôks
Inessive ts- tsézíny tsílô Inessive ts- -(i)ks tsézínyíks tsílôks
Illative č- čézíny čílô Illative č- -(i)ks čézínyíks čílôks
Exessive b- bézíny bílô Exessive b- -(i)ks bézínyíks bílôks
Elative 'Ub- 'ûbézíny 'íbílô Elative 'Ub- -(i)ks 'ûbézínyíks 'íbílôks

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Class IVA: Soft Glottal Stop Plural Fronted Stem Class

Class IVA is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a soft glottal stop consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ') and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). The effect that this type of glottal stop has on the case prefixes is it makes that consonant more like a glottal stop. This produces a variety of effects which you can see below. In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IVA, the fronted stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and fronted stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers.

Class IVA Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form 'úr "tail" 'oks "handle" Cases Form 'úr "tail" 'oks "handle"
Nominative '- 'úr 'oks Nominative '- 'ûr 'öks
Terminative k- kúr koks Terminative k- kûr köks
Partitive d- dúr doks Partitive d- dûr döks
Genitive p- púr poks Genitive p- pûr pöks
Instrumental t- túr toks Instrumental t- tûr töks
Comitative d- dúr doks Comitative d- dûr döks
Essive Ad- ádúr adoks Essive Ad- âdûr ädöks
Adessive k- kúr koks Adessive k- kûr köks
Allative g- gúr goks Allative g- gûr göks
Abessive t- túr toks Abessive t- tûr töks
Ablative t- túr toks Ablative t- tûr töks
Inessive ts- tsúr tsoks Inessive ts- tsûr tsöks
Illative č- čúr čoks Illative č- čûr čöks
Exessive b- búr boks Exessive b- bûr böks
Elative 'Ub- 'úbúr 'uboks Elative 'Ub- 'ûbûr 'üböks

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Class IVB: Soft Glottal Stop Oblique Fronted Stem Class

Class IVB is for monosyllabic words that begin with a soft glottal stop consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ') and end with a consonant and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class IVB, the fronted stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the fronted stem is used for the core cases, and the fronted stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases. Additionally, the soft glottal stop makes the consonant of the case prefix more like a glottal stop.

Class IVB Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form 'ostr "hill" 'uþw "navel" Cases Form 'ostr "hill" 'uþw "navel"
Nominative '- 'ostr 'uþw Nominative '- 'östr 'üþw
Terminative k- kostr kuþw Terminative k- köstr küþw
Partitive d- dostr duþw Partitive d- döstr düþw
Genitive p- postr puþw Genitive p- pöstr püþw
Instrumental t- töstr tüþw Instrumental t- -(i)ks töstriks tüþwiks
Comitative d- döstr düþw Comitative d- -(i)ks döstriks düþwiks
Essive Ad- ädöstr ädüþw Essive Ad- -(i)ks ädöstriks ädüþwiks
Adessive k- köstr küþw Adessive k- -(i)ks köstriks küþwiks
Allative g- göstr güþw Allative g- -(i)ks göstriks güþwiks
Abessive t- töstr tüþw Abessive t- -(i)ks töstriks tüþwiks
Ablative t- töstr tüþw Ablative t- -(i)ks töstriks tüþwiks
Inessive ts- tsöstr tsüþw Inessive ts- -(i)ks tsöstriks tsüþwiks
Illative č- čöstr čüþw Illative č- -(i)ks čöstriks čüþwiks
Exessive b- böstr büþw Exessive b- -(i)ks böstriks büþwiks
Elative 'Ub- 'üböstr 'übüþw Elative 'Ub- -(i)ks 'üböstriks 'übüþwiks

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Class IVC: Soft Glottal Stop Plural Raised Stem Class

Class IVC is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a soft glottal stop consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ') and end with a consonant, and whose vowel is e. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IVC, the raised stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and the raised stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers. Additionally, the soft glottal stop makes the consonant of the case prefix more like a glottal stop. [Note: The b at the end of the word for "wound" is not pronounced when it comes word-finally. For more info see rule 12 of the phonology section for an explanation.]

Class IVC Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form 'esl "stick" 'emb "wound" Cases Form 'esl "stick" 'emb "wound"
Nominative '- 'esl 'emb Nominative '- 'isl 'imb
Terminative k- kesl kemb Terminative k- kisl kimb
Partitive d- desl demb Partitive d- disl dimb
Genitive p- pesl pemb Genitive p- pisl pimb
Instrumental t- tesl temb Instrumental t- tisl timb
Comitative d- desl demb Comitative d- disl dimb
Essive Ad- ädesl ädemb Essive Ad- ädisl ädimb
Adessive k- kesl kemb Adessive k- kisl kimb
Allative g- gesl gemb Allative g- gisl gimb
Abessive t- tesl temb Abessive t- tisl timb
Ablative t- tesl temb Ablative t- tisl timb
Inessive ts- tsesl tsemb Inessive ts- tsisl tsimb
Illative č- česl čemb Illative č- čisl čimb
Exessive b- besl bemb Exessive b- bisl bimb
Elative 'Ub- 'übesl 'übemb Elative 'Ub- 'ibisl 'ibimb

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Class IVD: Soft Glottal Stop Oblique Raised Stem Class

Class IVD is for monosyllabic words that begin with a soft glottal stop consonant (romanizationally, these are words that begin with the letter ĥ) and end with a consonant, and whose vowel ise. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class IVD, the raised stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the raised stem is used for the core cases, and the raised stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases. Additionally, the soft glottal stop makes the consonant of the case prefix more like a glottal stop.

Class IVD Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form 'émr "brick" 'efkl "basket" Cases Form 'émr "brick" 'efkl "basket"
Nominative '- 'émr 'efkl Nominative '- 'ímr 'ifkl
Terminative k- kémr kefkl Terminative k- kímr kifkl
Partitive d- démr defkl Partitive d- dímr difkl
Genitive p- pémr pefkl Genitive p- pímr pifkl
Instrumental t- témr tefkl Instrumental t- -(i)ks tímríks tifkliks
Comitative d- démr defkl Comitative d- -(i)ks dímríks difkliks
Essive Ad- âdémr ädefkl Essive Ad- -(i)ks âdímríks ädifkliks
Adessive k- kémr kefkl Adessive k- -(i)ks kímríks kifkliks
Allative g- gémr gefkl Allative g- -(i)ks gímríks gifkliks
Abessive t- témr tefkl Abessive t- -(i)ks tímríks tifkliks
Ablative t- témr tefkl Ablative t- -(i)ks tímríks tifkliks
Inessive ts- tsémr tsefkl Inessive ts- -(i)ks tsímríks tsifkliks
Illative č- čémr čefkl Illative č- -(i)ks čímríks čifkliks
Exessive b- bémr befkl Exessive b- -(i)ks bímríks bifkliks
Elative 'Ub- 'ûbémr 'übefkl Elative 'Ub- -(i)ks 'íbímríks 'ibifkliks

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Class V: Hard Glottal Default Class

Class V is a bit of an odd class. All words in all class V classes (default or otherwise) begin with a hard glottal, those being the hard glottal stop (romanized ") and the hard glottal fricative (romanized ħ). These sounds are no different from their non-hard glottal counterparts, but when case prefixes are added, the hard glottals are treated like non-glottal consonants. Thus, CV- prefixes are added to the beginning of the word. The glottals themselves, however, are not pronounced, resulting in hiatus. In the romanization, the hard glottal stop " will be omitted in declined nouns, but the hard glottal fricative ħ will remain, to remind the user of Gweydr of the nominative form of the noun. [Note: The change from s to z exhibited by certain declensions of ħôlôs is explained in rule 1 of the phonology section.]

Class V Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form "óví "door" ħôlôs "chin" Cases Form "óví "door" ħôlôs "chin"
Nominative "-/ħ- "óví ħôlôs Nominative "-/ħ- -(i)ks "óvíks ħôlôzíks
Terminative ki- kíóví kíħôlôs Terminative ki- -(i)ks kíóvíks kíħôlôzíks
Partitive rA- ráóví râħôlôs Partitive rA- -(i)ks ráóvíks râħôlôzíks
Genitive fU- fúóví fûħôlôs Genitive fU- -(i)ks fúóvíks fûħôlôzíks
Instrumental tA- táóví tâħôlôs Instrumental tA- -(i)ks táóvíks tâħôlôzíks
Comitative ne- néóví néħôlôs Comitative ne- -(i)ks néóvíks néħôlôzíks
Essive Al- álóví âlħôlôs Essive Al- -(i)ks álóvíks âlħôlôzíks
Adessive gi- gíóví gíħôlôs Adessive gi- -(i)ks gíóvíks gíħôlôzíks
Allative wO- wóóví wôħôlôs Allative wO- -(i)ks wóóvíks wôħôlôzíks
Abessive di- díóví díħôlôs Abessive di- -(i)ks díóvíks díħôlôzíks
Ablative þi- þíóví þíħôlôs Ablative þi- -(i)ks þíóvíks þíħôlôzíks
Inessive sA- sáóví sâħôlôs Inessive sA- -(i)ks sáóvíks sâħôlôzíks
Illative šA- šáóví šâħôlôs Illative šA- -(i)ks šáóvíks šâħôlôzíks
Exessive mA- máóví mâħôlôs Exessive mA- -(i)ks máóvíks mâħôlôzíks
Elative 'Um- 'úmóví 'ûmħôlôs Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'úmóvíks 'ûmħôlôzíks

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Class VA: Hard Glottal Plural Fronted Stem Class

Class VA is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a hard glottal stop (romanized ") or a hard glottal fricative (romanized ħ) and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). These sounds are no different from their non-hard glottal counterparts, but when case prefixes are added, the hard glottals are treated like non-glottal consonants. Thus, CV- prefixes are added to the beginning of the word. The glottals themselves, however, are not pronounced, resulting in hiatus. In the romanization, the hard glottal stop " will be omitted in declined nouns, but the hard glottal fricative ħ will remain, to remind the user of Gweydr of the nominative form of the noun. In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class VA, the fronted stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and fronted stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers.

Class VA Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form ħaksl "book" "orf "candle" Cases Form ħaksl "book" "orf "candle"
Nominative "-/ħ- ħaksl "orf Nominative "-/ħ- ħäksl "örf
Terminative ki- kiħaksl kiorf Terminative ki- kiħäksl kiörf
Partitive rA- raħaksl raorf Partitive rA- räħäksl räörf
Genitive fU- fuħaksl fuorf Genitive fU- füħäksl füörf
Instrumental tA- taħaksl taorf Instrumental tA- täħäksl täörf
Comitative ne- neħaksl neorf Comitative ne- neħäksl neörf
Essive Al- alħaksl alorf Essive Al- älħäksl älörf
Adessive gi- giħaksl giorf Adessive gi- giħäksl giörf
Allative wO- woħaksl woorf Allative wO- wöħäksl wöörf
Abessive di- diħaksl diorf Abessive di- diħäksl diörf
Ablative þi- þiħaksl þiorf Ablative þi- þiħäksl þiörf
Inessive sA- saħaksl saorf Inessive sA- säħäksl säörf
Illative šA- šaħaksl šaorf Illative šA- šäħäksl šäörf
Exessive mA- maħaksl maorf Exessive mA- mäħäksl mäörf
Elative 'Um- 'umaħaksl 'umaorf Elative 'Um- 'ümäħäksl 'ümäörf

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Class VB: Hard Glottal Oblique Fronted Stem Class

Class VB is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a hard glottal stop (romanized ") or a hard glottal fricative (romanized ħ) and contain one of three vowels: a, o, or u (either their lax or tense variants). These sounds are no different from their non-hard glottal counterparts, but when case prefixes are added, the hard glottals are treated like non-glottal consonants. Thus, CV- prefixes are added to the beginning of the word. The glottals themselves, however, are not pronounced, resulting in hiatus. In the romanization, the hard glottal stop " will be omitted in declined nouns, but the hard glottal fricative ħ will remain, to remind the user of Gweydr of the nominative form of the noun. In this class, the normal back vowels front, such that a becomes ä; o becomes ö; and u becomes ü. The result is what's known as the fronted stem. In Class VB, the fronted stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the fronted stem is used for the core cases, and the fronted stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases.

Class VB Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form "orč "bear" ħus "shovel" Cases Form "orč "bear" ħus "shovel"
Nominative "-/ħ- "orč ħus Nominative "-/ħ- "örč ħüs
Terminative ki- kiorč kiħus Terminative ki- kiörč kiħüs
Partitive rA- raorč raħus Partitive rA- räörč räħüs
Genitive fU- fuorč fuħus Genitive fU- füörč füħüs
Instrumental tA- täörč täħüs Instrumental tA- -(i)ks täörčiks täħüziks
Comitative ne- neörč neħüs Comitative ne- -(i)ks neörčiks neħüziks
Essive Al- älörč älħüs Essive Al- -(i)ks älörčiks älħüziks
Adessive gi- giörč giħüs Adessive gi- -(i)ks giörčiks giħüziks
Allative wO- wöörč wöħüs Allative wO- -(i)ks wöörčiks wöħüziks
Abessive di- diörč diħüs Abessive di- -(i)ks diörčiks diħüziks
Ablative þi- þiörč þiħüs Ablative þi- -(i)ks þiörčiks þiħüziks
Inessive sA- säörč säħüs Inessive sA- -(i)ks säörčiks säħüziks
Illative šA- šäörč šäħüs Illative šA- -(i)ks šäörčiks šäħüziks
Exessive mA- mäörč mäħüs Exessive mA- -(i)ks mäörčiks mäħüziks
Elative 'Um- 'ümörč 'ümħüs Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'ümörčiks 'ümħüziks

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Class VC: Hard Glottal Plural Raised Stem Class

Class VC is the class used for monosyllabic nouns which begin with a hard glottal stop (romanized ") or a hard glottal fricative (romanized ħ) and whose vowel is e (either their lax or tense variant). These sounds are no different from their non-hard glottal counterparts, but when case prefixes are added, the hard glottals are treated like non-glottal consonants. Thus, CV- prefixes are added to the beginning of the word. The glottals themselves, however, are not pronounced, resulting in hiatus. In the romanization, the hard glottal stop " will be omitted in declined nouns, but the hard glottal fricative ħ will remain, to remind the user of Gweydr of the nominative form of the noun. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class VC, the raised stem is used to form the plural, such that the same case marking applies to two different stems (the normal stem and raised stem) to achieve the effect of having two different numbers.

Class VC Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form "elts "cheek" ħesk "shirt" Cases Form "elts "cheek" ħesk "shirt"
Nominative "-/ħ- "elts ħesk Nominative "-/ħ- "ilts ħisk
Terminative ki- kielts kiħesk Terminative ki- kiilts kiħisk
Partitive rA- räelts räħesk Partitive rA- räilts räħisk
Genitive fU- füelts füħesk Genitive fU- fiilts fiħisk
Instrumental tA- täelts täħesk Instrumental tA- täilts täħisk
Comitative ne- neelts neħesk Comitative ne- neilts neħisk
Essive Al- älelts älħesk Essive Al- älilts älħisk
Adessive gi- gielts giħesk Adessive gi- giilts giħisk
Allative wO- weelts weħesk Allative wO- wöilts wöħisk
Abessive di- dielts diħesk Abessive di- diilts diħisk
Ablative þi- þielts þiħesk Ablative þi- þiilts þiħisk
Inessive sA- säelts säħesk Inessive sA- säilts säħisk
Illative šA- šäelts šäħesk Illative šA- šäilts šäħisk
Exessive mA- mäelts mäħesk Exessive mA- mäilts mäħisk
Elative 'Um- 'ümelts 'ümħesk Elative 'Um- 'imilts 'imħisk

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Class VD: Hard Glottal Stop Oblique Raised Stem Class

Class VD is for monosyllabic words that begin with a hard glottal stop (romanized ") or a hard glottal fricative (romanized ħ) and end with a consonant, and whose vowel ise. In this class, the vowel e raises to become i. The result is what's known as the raised stem. In Class VD, the raised stem is used to form the oblique cases in the singular, while the normal stem is used to form the core cases. The core cases are the nominative, terminative, partitive, and genitive. The rest are the oblique cases. In the plural, the raised stem is used for the core cases, and the raised stem plus the plural marker -ks is used for the oblique cases. Additionally, the hard glottal stop makes the consonant of the case prefix more like a glottal stop.

Class VD Declension Table
Singular Plural
Cases Form "eldr "flag" ħentl "mushroom" Cases Form "eldr "flag" ħentl "mushroom"
Nominative "-/ħ- "eldr ħentl Nominative "-/ħ- "ildr ħintl
Terminative ki- kieldr kiħentl Terminative ki- kiildr kiħintl
Partitive rA- räeldr räħentl Partitive rA- räildr räħintl
Genitive fU- füeldr füħentl Genitive fU- fiildr fiħintl
Instrumental tA- täeldr täħentl Instrumental tA- -(i)ks täildriks täħintl
Comitative ne- neeldr neħentl Comitative ne- -(i)ks neildriks neħintliks
Essive Al- äleldr älħentl Essive Al- -(i)ks älildriks älħintliks
Adessive gi- gieldr giħentl Adessive gi- -(i)ks giildriks giħintliks
Allative wO- weeldr weħentl Allative wO- -(i)ks wöildriks wöintliks
Abessive di- dieldr diħentl Abessive di- -(i)ks diildriks diħintliks
Ablative þi- þieldr þiħentl Ablative þi- -(i)ks þiildriks þiħintliks
Inessive sA- säeldr säħentl Inessive sA- -(i)ks säildriks säħintliks
Illative šA- šäeldr šäħentl Illative šA- -(i)ks šäildriks šäħintliks
Exessive mA- mäeldr mäħentl Exessive mA- -(i)ks mäildriks mäħintliks
Elative 'Um- 'ümeldr 'ümħentl Elative 'Um- -(i)ks 'imildriks 'imħintliks

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